Industry Knowledge
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Docment NameDateFile sizeDownload
2Q18 Investor Focus : coal market highlight 20/08/20181.09 MB
1Q18 Investor Focus : 'Smarter'20/08/20181.2 MB
FY2017 & 4Q17 : The Banpu difference23/02/20181.18 MB
  • Coal
  • Power
  • Oil&Gas


A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods.

Belt Conveyor

A looped belt on which coal or other materials can be carried and which is generally constructed of flame-resistant material or of reinforced rubber or rubber-like substance.

Boom Stacker

A stacker is a large machine used in bulk material handling. Its function is to pile bulk material such as limestone, ores and cereals on to a stockpile.

Clean Coal Technology

A number of innovative, new technologies designed to use coal in a more efficient and cost-effective manner while enhancing environmental protection. Several promising technologies include: fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, limestone injection multi-stage burner, enhanced flue gas desulfurization (or "scrubbing"), coal liquefaction and coal gasification.

Coal Blending

Coal from various mines and/or different local stockpiles are blended together to create a new batch to meet customer specifications

Coal Gasification

Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas

Coal Reserve

A Coal Reserve is the economically mineable part of a Measured or Indicated coal resource. It includes diluting materials and allowances for losses which may occur when the material is mined. Appropriate assessments, which may include feasibility studies, have been carried out, and include consideration of the modification by realistically assumed mining, metallurgical, economic, marketing, legal, environmental, social and governmental factors. These assessments demonstrate at the time of reporting that extraction could reasonably be justified. Coal reserves are subdivided in order of increasing confidence into Probable coal reserves and Proved coal reserves.

Coal Resource

Coal Resource is a concentration or occurrence of coal for which there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction. The location, quantity, quality, geological characteristics and continuity of a Coal Resource are known, estimated or interpreted from specific geological evidence and knowledge. Coal Resources are subdivided in order of increasing geological confidence into Inferred, Indicated and Measured categories.

Coal Washing

The process of separating undesirable materials from coal based on differences in densities. Pyritic sulfur, or sulfur combined with iron, is heavier and sinks in water; coal is lighter and floats.

Coking Coal

coal is used to create coke, one of the key inputs for the production of steel.

Cost Insurance & Freight Discharging Port (CIF)

Method of selling cargo where seller pays for loading costs, ocean freight and insurance.


A machine for crushing rock or other materials.

Demurrage Charges

The term demurrage originated in vessel chartering and refers to the period when the charterer remains in possession of the vessel after the period normally allowed to load and unload cargo (laytime).

Dumping Area

A disposal site for the overburden or dirt

Finished Coal (FC)

Coal that been processed.

Free On Board Loading Port (FOB)

Method of selling cargo excluding ocean freight and insurance, but including loading costs.

Hauling Road

The horizontal transport of ore, coal, supplies, and waste.

Heating Value

The heating value of coal varies from coal field to coal field. (Kcal/kg)

Longwall Mining

A mining method. Longwall mining uses mechanical shearers to cut coal away whilst hydraulic-powered supports hold up the roof of the mine.


Moisture in coal


Million tonnes


Million tonnes per annum

Open–Cut (Open-Pit)

In surface mining the layers of rock or soil overly a coal seam are first removed after which the coal is extracted from the exposed seam


Waste material overlying a coal seam

Port Stockyard

The Coal stock area at the port before load onto the ship

Run-of-Mine Coal (ROM)

Raw material as it exists in the mine; average grade or quality.

Seam (Bed)

A stratum or bed of coal.

Ship Loader

A huge machine used for loading bulk solid materials like iron ore, coal, fertilizers, grains into ships for transportation by sea

Stripping Ratio

Ratio of overburden to be moved for every corresponding quantity of ROM coal mined, usually expressed as m3/t


A naturally occurring mineral that is found mostly near hot springs and volcanic craters.

Thermal Coal (Steam Coal)

A type of coal that primarily used as a solid fuel to produce heat for electricity generation


Tonnes per annum


A merchant ship specially designed to transport bulk cargo, usually transport on End to End destination, the capacity vary between 10,000 - 100,000 tons per shipment.

Washed Coal

Washing coal generally describes a water based process where the denser material (rocks and high ash coal particles) are separated and removed from the coal. The coal generally is processed through water separation machines

Coal Power Plant

A power station that generates electricity by the burning of coal

Combined Heat and Power Plant

The simultaneous production of electricity with the recovery and utilisation heat. Cogeneration is a highly efficient form of energy conversion and it can achieve primary energy savings of approximately 40% by compared to the separate purchase of electricity from the national electricity grid and a gas boiler for onsite heating.


A policy mechanism designed to accelerate investment in renewable energy technologies

Godo Kaisha (GK)

A type of business organization in Japan modeled . It is a type of corporation having a simplified internal structure like that of a partnership distinguished by offering limited

Independent Power Producer (IPP)

An entity, which is not a public utility, but which owns facilities to generate electric power for sale to utilities and end users.

Mine-mouth Power Plant

A coal burning electricity generating plant that is built close to a coal mine.

Thermal Power Plant

A power plant with the prime mover is stam driven

Tokumei Kumiai structure (TK)

A Japanese Commercial Code contract (TK Agreement) under which one or more silent investors (TK Investors) contribute assets to a business operator in Japan (TK Operator).

Transmission Line

Conductor electrical energy to serve the destination transmission electrical energy to serve the destination.

Barrel (Bbl)

This is the standard measurement for quantities of oil. One barrel of oil is equal to 42 gallons.


The activities that take place after the initial drilling of a well, and are used for bringing a well on to production. This involves cementing, perforating, fracking, and more. Together, in the Chaffee Corner area, drilling and completion costs average ~$6.0MM.


This process entails using a drilling rig to drill the vertical or horizontal wellbore for the future extraction of hydrocarbons.

Economic Reserves

The quantity of reserves that are technically and economically recoverable under existing conditions and operating methods are deemed to be Economic Reserves.

Estimated Ultimate Recovery

The estimated cumulative amount of oil or gas forecasted for a single well. Typically, this production will occur over 40 to 50 years.

Held By Production (HBP)

Acreage is HBP when there is a producing well on the underlying Oil and Gas Lease. In this event, the Oil and Gas Lease will not expire, as long as the well continues to produce hydrocarbons.

Horizontal Well

A well drilled vertically to a given depth, then gradually curved until the wellbore is horizontal, so as to intersect a producing formation across thousands of horizontal feet.

Hydraulic Fracturing

The process of pumping water, sand and chemicals into a drill wellbore in order to fracture impermeable rock. This fracturing then allows hydrocarbons, previously considered inaccessible, to flow towards the wellbore for production.

Joint Working Interest

Two or more parties each own an undivided fraction of the working interest in a single lease.

Lease Operating Expenses (LOE)

Lease Operating Expenses are measured as a function of costs per thousand cubic feet (mcf) of gas produced.


Gas is measured in number of cubic feet. Thousands of cubic feet, or Mcf, is the standard measurement for quantities of gas. Production can be measured in Mmcfd, meaning million cubic feet of natural gas produced per day


Non-operators pay their proportionate share to the operator. This involves all of the rest of the joint working interest owners, other than the operator.

Oil and Gas Lease

Prior to drilling activities, an Oil and Gas Lease must be retrieved from the mineral owner. Mineral owners are paid an upfront Lease Bonus, in addition to a royalty percentage from any productive well.


The operator is the company whose name is on the well and manages the day-to-day operations. The operator is one and only one of the joint working interest owners.


Permeability entails the connections between pore spaces within the rock.


Porosity is defined as the pore space within the rocks.

Proved Developed Reserves (PDP)

Proved Developed Reserves are expected to be extracted through existing wells and equipment, and are actively being produced.

Proved Undeveloped Reserves (PUD)

Proved Undeveloped Reserves are expected to be extracted through new wells on undrilled acreage, however, this undrilled acreage must be "proved" to a reasonable extent.


A reservoir is defined by four features. These four features are the accumulation of hydrocarbons via a present source rock, organic material that is "cooked" into hydrocarbons, porosity and permeability, and an impervious cap rock.

Single Well Economics

Single Well Economics measure the economics of a single oil or gas well. These economics account for relevant acquisition costs, drilling and completion costs, and production over the 40 to 50 year life of the well

Vertical Well

A well drilled directly above the producing target, straight down.